Electrospun Membrane Fabrication in Assisting Tissues Healing
Keywords:Electrospinning, Membrane, Nanofibers, Tissue healing
The arrangement of fibers into three-dimensional (3D) complex structure is constructing a sheet of membrane, depending on the fabrication technique. The fiber mats and scaffolds have been used in various applications including tissue engineering which involve the integration of cells and tissues within the pores between the fibers. There are several techniques that have been opted to produce specifically nanofibers as its efficacy in tissue healing is prominent compared to microfibers. Among the fabrication techniques (drawing, template synthesis, temperature-induced phase separation, molecular self-assembly, and electrospinning), electrospinning method has drawn attention due to their easy handling, inexpensive, and ability for membrane scale-up with the production of fibers ranging from few nanometers to several microns. Researchers have employed a variety of electrospinning methods, including blended/co-electrospinning, emulsion, coaxial, side-by-side, and triaxial electrospinning. In electrospinning smooth formation of nanofibers for tissue healing with less appearance of spray and beads, several parameters such as humidity, temperature, voltage, flow rate, viscosity, concentration, molecular weight, surface tension, conductivity, and solvent volatile need to be tailored. The morphology of nanofibers formation should support the size and structure of the surrounded cells and tissues. Besides, the types of degradable polymeric materials also play a role in the formation of stable nanofibers. This review paper aimed to provide information on the techniques to produce nanofibers, intended to the basic exploration of electrospinning.